Temperate Deciduous Forest
Location and Climate:
Temperate deciduous forests can be found in the eastern part of the United States and Canada, most of Europe, and parts of China and Japan.
This biome has four distinct seasons. This includes spring, summer, fall, and winter. In summer the temperature is hot and in the winters the weather is generally cold. The average temperature is around -30 degrees celsius and up to 30 degrees celsius. There is percipatation year round; 750 mm to 1,500 mm per year.
Temperate deciduous forests are generally non-flat and many lay on mountain chains or regions where it is mountainous. Many are or relatively adjacent to coastal waters.
A hillside of a temperate deciduous forest.
There is a large variety of plant life in a temperate deciduous forest. Lichen, moss, ferns, wildflowers, and other plants can be found of floors of temperate deciduous forests. Shrubs fill the middle layer. Most of the trees are broadleaf trees such as oak, maple, beech, hickory and chestnut. Most plants tend to go through a period called dormancy (or sleep) in the winter. The term deciduous refers to how a tree sheds its leaves. Leaves change colors during the fall and eventually just fall off. The leaves grow back in the spring.
Leaves changing color. Can be a shade of red, orange, or yellow.
Trees in the winter.
Trees changing from green to various colors in the fall.
Animals that live in temperate deciduous forests have to be able to adapt to both the heat and the cold during the winter and summer months. Many mammals (such as chipmunks,squirrels, and bears) will hibernate during the winter months to survive. Typical animals in this biome include many types of insects, spiders, salamanders, turtles, and frogs. Birds like hawks, owls, cardinals, and woodpeckers are common. Mammals include things like raccoons, bears, deer, porcupines, and foxes.
A baby deer (called a fawn)
Some possible food chains on a temperate deciduous forest
Human Influence/Health Concerns/Threats:
The biggest threat to this biome is development of cities and agriculture because many people seek to live in these areas do to its temperature (neither too hot nor too cold) and the soil is rich so farming is very easy. Also, there are no disease spreading insects unlike the tropical forests regions. Another threat is logging; most trees here are hardwoods, meaning that they have a much more denser wood than other trees. Acid rain is also a threat because it kills off many trees and animals. Global warming also affects these forests because it can change rainfall patterns.
Many trees die due to acid rain and its effects.
POP QUIZ! :D
1. What is the average temperature of a temperate deciduous forest?
a) 20 - 50 degrees Celsius
b) -30 - 30 degrees Celsius
c) 0 - 100 degrees Celsius
d) -15 - 40 degrees Celsius
2. This biome has ______ distinct seasons.
3. This biome is usually next to ______.
a) coastal waters
4. An oak is a ______ found in this biome.
5. Four animals found in temperate deciduous forests are _______.
a) bears, lions, tigers, penguins
b) squirrels, bears, raccoons, toads
c) killer whales, fox, hawks, dolphins
d) clown fish, bears, cardinals, chipmunks
6. True or False. This biome gets around 750 to 1500 mm of rain annually.
7. True or False. If you traveled to Japan you would be staying in a temperate deciduous forest.
8. True or False. Chipmunks do not live in this biome.
9. True or False. This biome is usually hilly.
10. True or False. There are no mammals that hibernate during the winter.
Jamie Valentine, Chad Wald, and Nick Wydra. Deciduous Forest. [Online] Available<http://ths.sps.lane.edu/biomes/deciduous3/deciduous3.html>; 28 September 2008
Temperate Deciduous Forests - NatureWorks. [Online] Available<http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwep8c.htm>; 28 Septemper 2008
Temperate Deciduous Forests. [Online] Available<http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tempded.htm>; 26 September 2008
Goran Holusa. Earth Observatory - Temperate Deciduous Forests. [Online] Available<http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Laboratory/Biome/biotemperate.html>; 30 September 2008
Forest Biome. [Online] Available<http://www.eoearth.org/article/Forest_biome>; 30 September 2008
"Raccoon" [Online Image] Available<http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/raccoon.htm>; 30 September 2008
"White Tailed Deer" [Online Image] Available<http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/whitetaileddeer.htm>; 30 September 2008
"Cardinal" [Online Image] Available<http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/cardinal.htm>; 30 September 2008
"Grizzly Bear" [Online Image] Available<http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/grizzly.htm>; 30 September 2008
"Trees" [Online Image] Available<http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/nwep8c.htm>; 30 September 2008
"Chipmunk" [Online Image] Available<http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tempded.htm>; 30 September 2008
"Acid Rain Tree" [Online Image] Available<http://www.terradaily.com/news/pollution-05zk.html>; 30 September 2008
"Landscape" [Online Image] Available<http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/deciduous.jpg>; 30 September 2008